Normalized data is for sissies OCT 27 2004
I'm not a hot shot programmer by any means, but I've done quite a bit of playing around with getting data in and out of databases programmatically. Something that's always confused me is the near-religion of data normalization among programmers and database admins. Every developer I've ever worked with has told me that when you're building a database, you need to normalize your data -- basically this means organizing your data in such a way that removes redundancy -- and failure to do so would result in public ridicule and possible revocation of access to any computing device. But I've always wondered, given that hard drives are cheap and getting cheaper, what's the problem with using more storage space in exchange for greater speed?
- Normalised data is for sissies
- Keep multiple copies of data around
- Makes searching faster
- Have to ensure consistency in the application logic
To which I would add: hard drives are cheap.
Cal presents normalization as a trade-off that, depending on your circumstances, might be worth looking at...which is a much more useful way of approaching the situation than what I've typically heard (normalize or die!). Want faster access to your data? Replicate it in the database but be aware that it'll cost you some storage space and you'll need to keep track of the extra data in your application (which can be a pain in the ass). In Flickr's case, they have 13 SELECTs for every INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE statement hitting their database. Normalization can slow SELECT speed down while denormalization makes your I/D/Us more complicated and slower. Since the application part of Flickr depends so heavily on SELECTs from the database, it makes sense for them to denormalize their data somewhat to speed things up.
Here's an analogy for the smokers in the audience...what sucks worse than realizing you left your lighter at home and you're stuck in traffic on the way to the office? The solution is to buy a bunch of lighters, one for your car, one for your coat pocket, one for the drawer in your office, one for your purse, etc. It's a trade-off. Your initial cash investment is greater (but lighters, like hard drives, are cheap) and you need to be diligent about leaving each lighter in its proper place, but you're never without a lighter when you need one.